English in India, is taught and learnt not only as a foreign language, but also as a second language. There are some basic principles useful for teaching all the languages. So, these are called general principles of language teaching. These are-
Principles of language learning
(1) Principle of Naturalness and feel good atmosphere
We learn mother-tongue more easily because a natural environment exists for learning. It is spoken in family and in neighbourhood. But the situation is not such for a foreign language. Therefore, a teacher should try to provide the child with natural environment for learning a second language.
The following points should be remembered-
(a) Teacher should talk to the students in this language in class, play ground etc and thus try to provide him a natural and feel good atmosphere.
(b) He should encourage the students to converse in this language.
(c) Debates and group discussions can be arranged.
(2) Principle of Exposure
Mother tongue is easily and quickly learnt by a child because he has frequent exposure to it. It is always spoken around him. So he tries to speak it. Children also can learn a foreign language better if they are provided with such exposure to a foreign language.
(3) Principle of Habit Formation
Like learning cycling, swimming etc. language learning is a skill. So it should be made a habit. It should be learnt in a way that little or no effort in made to speak it. In learning mother-tongue we form speech habits unconsciously. It learning a foreign language speech habits are to be formed consciously.
(4) Principle of Proper Order and Proportion
Natural order of teaching is made up of learning the four basic language skills. These are listening, speaking, reading and writing.
The classical order of learning these skills are-
Listening (Understanding)——-> Speaking——-> Reading——–> Writing
But according to some educationist reading becomes easier when writing is learnt before reading as association of symbols ,and sounds can be made.
Besides this order care should be taken that equal importance is given on such aspect. This is the principle of proportion.
(5) Principle of Motivation
Motivation is the care of learning. It acts as a stimulus to second language. So some techniques should be followed. These are-
(a) Arousing Techniques : It refers to the technique that arouses the students from the state of sleepiness. Inducing anxiety curiosity, insperation are such techniques.
(b) Expectancy Techniques : In order to motivate one there should be a clear cut goal to achieve and an expectancy to achieve them. So teachers should try to formulate a clear cut goal for the students.
(c) Incentive Techniques : Prize, praise, competition etc are there in this category.
(6) Principle of Gradation
One of the important maxim of Principles of language learning and teaching is to ‘proceed from simple to difficult’ and ‘from more useful to less useful’. Selected words and structures are arranged in an order which is suitable for teaching them. This is called gradation. This can be classified in two ways.
(a) Principle of Grouping: The materials selected in grouped on the basis of sound, situation, sentence structure, meaning. This makes the learning process systematic and easier. When the material is grouped on the basis of sound, it is called ‘phonetic grouping, e.g. go, sow, toe, flow, throw etc. If the material is grouped on the basis of situation, it is called ‘lesical grouping’ e.g. father, mother, brother, sister etc. It is the basic in sentence structure. We call it ‘grammatical’. When the material is grouped on the basis of meaning, we call it sematic grouping.
(b) Principle of Sequencing :
(i) Grammatical Sequence : The teacher should first teach all suitable structures having subject-verb-object and then we should teach structures having subject-verb-object- extension. e.g. ‘We read book’ should be taught first and then We read book to learn.
(ii) Lexical Sequence : It deals with which word comes after which e.g. ‘or’ follows ‘either’, ‘nor’ follows ‘neither’.
(iii) Sematic Sequence : Words of same or rather sam by one : e.g. meanings should be taught one
(a) He reads literature
(b) He reads poem
(c) He reads story
(d) He reads novel.
(7) Principle of Phonology
In order to remember written symbols it is always suitable to attach them with spoken symbols. So, we should start teaching a foreign language with
listening sounds and speaking language.
(8) Principle of Learning by Doing
According to this principle emphasis should be given on acquiring the skill by doing. For foreign language acquisition written work, pronunciation, reading, spelling, writing, hearing are essential activites. We should give
students good practice of them. It is considered to be the best Principles of language learning and teaching.
(9) Principle of Correlation with Life
Teacher should try to teach in such a way that he can relate the subject matter to life. Thus he can teach more meaningfully. Students can digest the lesson easily. Moreover learning can be thus transferred to real life situation.
(10) Principle of Tolerance of Mistakes
In case of learning a second language like English mistakes are part of the process. Therefore, students should be encouraged to use the language. Mistakes can initially be ignored. Self-correction should be encouraged. Teacher should not interrupt.It is one of the big Principles of language learning and teaching.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS OF Principles of language learning and teaching
- One of the basic Principles of Learning a second language is-
(A) students should be provided with natural and feel good atmosphere
(B) the class should be very disciplined and formal
(C) the class should be well equipped (D) none of these
- One learns mother-tongue easily and quickly because
(A) it is always easier no (B) he likes it AST
(C) he has frequent exposure to it (D) he has easier access to intonation, stress etc.
- The classical order of teaching four skills is-
- A Principles of language learning a second language is
(A) order and proportion (B) learning by doing (C) Motivation (D) All of that
- ‘X’ is a student who is learning English as a second language. While trying to speak in English he makes a few grammatical errors. Now, what should be the function of a teacher?[ Principles of language learning and teaching]
(A) The teacher should rebuke him
(B) The teacher should interrupt him and point out the errors
(C) He should pay no attention to the errors.
(D) He should listen to him tolerantly and help him in self-correction
ANSWER of Principles of language learning
1.(A) 2.(C) 3.(B) 4.(D) 5.(D)
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